‘Ngena ku Smart’

Implications of Medical Male Circumcision on the Xhosa Custom of Ukusoka in Zimbabwe


  • Ronard Mutusva
  • Sindile Dlodlo




Medical male circumcision, ukusoka, culture, Xhosa


This study brings out circumcision dilemmas and conflicts among the Xhosa people of Lortondale area in the Matabeleland North province of Zimbabwe. The problem befell this community immediately after 2009 when Zimbabwe adopted results from Kenya, Uganda and South Africa in Orange farm that circumcision can curb HIV transmission by 60% from female to male and thus attention was given to medical circumcision, which is known as ‘smart’. Family disunity and disintegration are some of the results of conflicts, within some families whose members shunned the traditional practice. Interviews and focus group discussions were employed in gathering primary data for this study. They allowed access to first-hand information from the Xhosa people themselves. On the same note, one of the researchers has worked closely with this community for a year in other HIV/AIDS programs. This counteracted the element of secrecy associated with the subject of circumcision among the Xhosa people which a number of scholars and news reporters fail to tackle and finally produce general results. Finally, a synergy is proposed as a way that restores peace and order in the society under study.


Download data is not yet available.




How to Cite

Mutusva, R. ., & Dlodlo, S. (2021). ‘Ngena ku Smart’: Implications of Medical Male Circumcision on the Xhosa Custom of Ukusoka in Zimbabwe. DANDE Journal of Social Sciences and Communication, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.15641/dande.v2i1.32